Work with the pheromones indicated that mass-trapping results in commercially acceptable levels of control for this pest only under special circumstances; i.e., where codling moth populations are low and where isolation precludes reinstation. On the other hand, Bones has reported success in reducing damage caused by a fruit tree leaf roller, Archips podana Sc., in a limited test in a small apple orchard join Italy. Some of the above studies have been discussed in several reviews. Learn about pheromone cologne for 2016 | http://anatomist.info
Mass Trapping the Pheromones
The gypsy moth has been the target of more mass-trapping pheromones studies than any other insect species. As reported in Forbush and Fernald, pheromone mass-trapping tests were begun in 1893 with live virgin females as bait. These early tests failed to demonstrate an effect on the high gypsy moth populations against which they were tried. The concept of mass trapping gypsy moths then lay dormant until the availability of inexpensive synthetic pheromone again made mass trapping economically viable. Since 1970, a number of studies with pheromones have been conducted in Europe and America with varying degrees of success. All tests reported to date have used racemic pheromones as the trap bait rather than the far more attractive ( + )-pheromones.
Important stimuli for pheromone experiments with the mass-trapping technique were two publications: one in 1966 on theoretical models by Knipling and McGuire;” the other in 1972, specifically for gypsy moths, by Beroza and Knipling.“ Both these papers will be discussed in detail later in this chapter, the point here being that they greatly influenced the design of the experiments described below.
The several pheromone tests conducted in Pennsylvania under the general leadership of Cameron, led Cameron to conclude that there was little interest in the use of- baited traps for population reduction or eradication due to lack of efficient traps, gaps in our knowledge on the behavior of males, especially near a trap, and the need for information on traps baited with (+)—pheromones. Moreover, in Cameron’s opinion, many of the assumptions on which the 1972 Beroza-Knipling model were based were inaccurate. The three tests that produced the above negative assessment can be summarized as follows: http://baids.org/?p=30
Design: Three hundred Johnson traps were placed in a 16-ha block to compete with 93 sentinal virgin females for the attention of 98 released males. This was a 3:1 trap to female ratio.
Results: The traps captured 70 males, and fertilization of the female moths was reduced 47 070 compared with the control test. This reduction was not statistically significant.
Comments: The pheromone capture rate was surprisingly high considering the inefficiency of the trap system used. Learn more about pheromones at http://sundowndivers.org/?p=82 and http://mpommett.blog.fc2.com/blog-entry-3.html
Small tube traps (2.5 cm X 7.5 cm) with approximately 500 pg of racemic disparlure mixed in the sticking agent were distributed by aircraft over test areas at the rates of 11.6 or 46.4/ha. Feral female gypsy moth pupae were collected and distributed as pupae within 100 ha test blocks in either a “random” pattern or an “aggregate" pheromone pattern. Treatments and appropriate control plots were replicated three times. The planned test trap to female ratios were to range from 5:1 to 75:1. Learn more at https://botw.org/top/Business/Shopping_and_Services/Health/Reproduction_and_Sexuality/