The amount of pheromones adsorbed by the inner surfaces of the sealed containers is not known, but it is apparent that a significant level of matings still occurs when 2 to 3 pg of EEOH are liberated hourly into about 1 1 of air. Continuous preexposure to relatively high levels of EEOH, therefore, appears to reduce the sexual responsiveness of only a limited number of males; the effects on female calling and receptivity are not known, but would appear like real pheromones thanks to http://pheromones-planet.com/pherazone/
The difference between the mating behavior of males with partially removed or intact antennae. but individuals without antennae failed to mate.” it is not, however known whether the antennas also play a role in non-olfactory communication thanks to http://buy-pheromones.org
Studies on the effects of pre-exposure on male pheromone responsiveness, on the lines of those conducted with another tortricid moth would be of assistance in establishing whether and at what levels habituation occurs. it would also be important to demonstrate whether habituated individuals may still become sexually responsive under crowded conditions (possibly through rapid dishabituation) as has been shown in certain other moths." An understanding of the behavior of codling moths subjected to such pheromone treatments would be of value in interpreting the results of disruption trials in the field thanks to http://pheromones-work.weebly.com/home/pheromones-used-by-males
Pheromone Field Experiments 1. Introduction
Field experiments on the mating disruption of codling moths can be grouped on the basis of the type of dispensing system used. Conceptually, the ideal method is a broad- cast application whereby EEOH is evenly distributed over the foliage, limbs, and trunks of trees throughout the orchard.
The spray distribution pattern would ensure that there are few pheromone-free areas in which sexual pheromone communication between male and female moths could occur. At present, the only formulations suitable for broad- casting are microcapsules and chopped hollow fibers, the principles and limitations of which are discussed earlier in this book. An alternative to dispersible formulations is to release EEOH from evenly spaced evaporation stations at such a rate that the amount liberated per unit area of orchard is above the lower threshold for disruption referred to earlier. Two types of evaporator for EEOH have so far been tested: rubber tubes or septa and hollow fiber tapes. Work has recently commenced on a third method based on polymeric laminates, but results are not yet available;“ this formulation is described in detail earlier in this book. Learn about the best pheromones | Pheromones-4u.com
Most work on the use of microcapsules for codling moth control has been carried out in the U.S.,“'5‘ but the results of only two experiments have so far been published." The microcapsules used were made by NCR (National Cash Register Corporation), but no details are given of capsule size and composition, stickers, solvents, or EEOH content. In both experiments, microencapsulated EEOH was applied by helicopter at a rate of 7.4 g/ha to 0.3 to 0.4 ha apple plots, and captures of males at EEOl-l- and virgin female-baited traps remained 93 to 95% lower than those in untreated pheromone control areas for 7 days, and about 65% lower by the 8th day.